A commercial paper is a debt security, a written commitment of a strictly defined form. The person who issued the bill is called the maker. Owning a bill – holder. Bills are simple and transferable.
Under a promissory note, the drawer will pay the bill holder without any conditions.
Bill of exchange (commercial paper) is a debt paper in which the drawer issues a written order to the payer to pay the named amount unconditionally. The procedure for making an obligation to pay a bill of exchange by the payer is called acceptance of the bill.
When using a promissory note, two parties are involved: the one who owes and the one to whom they owe. A bill of exchange requires the participation of already three – the drawer, the payer and the one to whom they pay.
The initial financial task of the bill is to transfer commodity-money relations into the form of an unconditional promise to pay. At the same time, the origin of debt loses legal significance, and the fact of debt is a priori considered as proven.
Rights under a bill are transferred not by way of the session, as for other securities, but by endorsement, that is, through a transfer inscription. Any person or organization who has put his signature on the bill becomes co-respondents for the debt with the right of regressive demand for all others who have signed. In other words, any person who has put an endorsement, you can bring to pay. Having paid the bill, the person acquires the right to demand payment from other persons who have set an endorsement, or directly from the payer. The transfer inscription is placed on the back of the bill.
Only when the bill is issued with payment upon presentation or at a certain time from the presentation, can percentages be indicated in it. In other cases, interest is not allowed – they will be considered unwritten. Reception of the income under the bill is possible, as a rule, in the form of a discount.
The law requires the bill to be presented on time: either on the day when the bill is due or within two days from this date. In case of refusal in payment on the bill, there is a special procedure – a protest on the bill. The protest on the bill is carried out at the notary, and further consideration in court is not required. The court immediately issues a writ of recovery. That is, enforcement proceedings against the debtor begin.
Research work is: answers to troubling questions
Writing a research paper is an important step in learning. Diploma, term paper, thesis – they sum up a kind of result in the learning process. Therefore, it is quite a difficult thing.
Many students wonder how to write a research paper so that subsequent protection will be successful. This article is designed to answer most of the questions associated with writing research, give a number of useful tips and recommendations that will help you accomplish the task as accurately as possible.
To begin with, we will answer the question of what research work is, why it is needed, and who does it.
Research work (R & D) is an activity aimed at collecting, analyzing, interpreting and systematizing certain information.
But the most important characteristic of research – it implies a scientific search.
In other words, within the framework of scientific work one or another problem is investigated that is relevant for a specific field of scientific knowledge.
Research involves the use of specialized scientific techniques, appeal to a wide range of scientific literature. It is focused on obtaining a result that is of research value.
This may be a term paper or a thesis, a monograph, a dissertation or a scientific article. In addition to the scientific value of research, it illustrates the level of mastering the curriculum of students, the degree of their knowledge of the scientific apparatus.
Writing and protection of a certain level of research and development is a mandatory prerequisite for a researcher to receive a scientific degree or a degree. Scientific works are written by students, undergraduates, graduate students, associate professors, doctors of science.
Perhaps the most painful question is how to choose a topic for the upcoming work.
There are two options: take a topic from the list provided by the department, and come up with it yourself.
Both options have their tangible pros and cons.