APA Style in research paper
The APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association) and is used in the writing of works on psychology, as well as other social sciences.
This format also provides for the use of annotations designed to summarize the key details contained in the document, without further details.
To annotate a meta-analysis or literature review
The abstract should contain not less than 150 and not more than 250 words. It should be written in one paragraph. Unlike the other paragraphs in the article (five spaces from the left edge), the first line of the abstract does not require a paragraph indent. Line spacing in annotations (as well as throughout the document) should be double, font – Times New Roman, 12 pt. Fields – 1 “(2.5 cm) on all sides.
The title is located in the upper left corner of each page, the page number is in the upper right corner of each page. Please note that the title is written in capital letters and should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation marks, letters and spaces.
The title of the abstract is placed in the center at the top of the page; there are no interline spaces between the title and the text. Avoid the title in bold, italics, underline, or quotes, or mislabeled annotations – the name of the research work.
When writing annotations note
that APA recommends using two spaces after the sentences that end with a period; however, sentences ending in other punctuation may be followed by a single space. In addition, the APA recommends using verb forms in the actual voice and the past tense in the annotation, but the present tense can be used to describe the conclusions and possible consequences. Abbreviations or abbreviations should be indicated in the abstract.
The annotation must meet the following conditions:
Summarize the most important points of your article;
Clearly reflect the purpose and content of your article;
Be consistent so that it is easy to read;
Stay objective in your point of view.
How to make a title page of scientific research?
On this page we will look at how to properly form the title page of the research work (project), we will give a sample, norms, and recommendations for the design of the title page of the project.
The title page of the research paper or project is drawn up on an A4 paper sheet and is the first page of the student’s project work.
left margin – 20 mm
right – 10 mm
top and bottom – 15 mm each
The full name of the educational institution is written in the upper field of the title page of the research work (font size is 16 pt.).
In the middle of the sheet is written without quotes “Research work” (font – 24 pt.)
The next line – in capital letters indicate the name of the research work without the word “theme”, without quotes and without a dot at the end (28 pt. Font).
The title, if necessary, may contain a subtitle for a more specific presentation of the theme of the project, but it should be very short and not become the second title of the work.
In the lower right corner of the title page, information about the author of the research work is given (last name, first name, class), below – information about the research leader (write “Manager” and indicate his surname, initials, and position.
If there are several project managers, all are comma-separated. If a consultant helped you in your work, then his initials and surname are placed below the head with the indication “Consultant”.
We give a sample of the title page of the student’s research work:
So, the design of the title page of the research work, as well as the project is almost standard:
full name of the institution
title of research
student last name, class
surname, initials, the position of project manager
city or town
year of work
Some of the design details depend on the recommendations of the Ministry of Education and Science of your country and region.
Proper design of all research work will help in the future correctly execute term papers and dissertations.
Registration of the title page of the research work is the first step.
What is the difference between thesis and dissertation?
The thesis (from the Latin. – research, reasoning) is a special, strictly defined form of a scientific work that has a scientific qualification character, prepared for public defense and a degree.
In the Big Encyclopedic Dictionary, the following definition is given: “The thesis is a research paper prepared for public defense for a degree”
Officially, the following requirements are made for the dissertation:
1) scientific research is conducted personally by the author;
2) the thesis contains a set of new scientific results and regulations;
3) the dissertation has an internal unity;
4) the dissertation indicates the personal contribution of the applicant to the development of a scientific problem;
First of all, I want to warn you: if you think that thesis is a brief retelling of the points of some more global text, then you are right. However, those who think that this is an independent article are also right, only in miniature.
The word “thesis” is used in several meanings. Most often we hear about it applicable to scientific activities.
In the scientific world, theses of the reports presented at the conference are often published in the newsletter and their value to the representatives of science is quite high: such a publication is counted for a higher scientific title.
However, this is not the only area that uses theses. If we talk about theses as an Internet product, they are intended to briefly describe the main theme of the site, blog, or its section. In addition, in the content business, very often customers do not offer a plan, but short statements that a copywriter should disclose. So you see – under this short word can hide a lot of interesting things.
To theses, as well as to any other professionally written text, there are uniform requirements. In spite of the fact that some of the points have them in connection with the essay, one should not forget: first of all, this is not a literary, but a scientific work with all the consequences.
The ability to correctly write theses, ideally, we should get back in school. However, not everyone at this age is able to understand that it is necessary not for the teacher and mom and dad, but above all for ourselves. Therefore, we recall:
The title should correspond to the main topic. I have a separate article about the headlines. It is better to choose the name after writing the main part – then it will be more accurate.
The topic is chosen clear and rather narrow: the concise format of the theses does not allow to get too far from the essence.
Essay score: how to define
If you are not writing an essay on your own, but on the instructions of a teacher, he will definitely evaluate it. Of course, I want to get the highest score, and for this, you need to know what criteria it will check. All this is well known to our authors, who write such works day after day. We give quality guarantees and vouch for them, as we select and accredit them personally. In addition, the customers themselves leave feedback on the work of the authors that make up the rating. So you can, based on it, choose a personnel specialist. In any case, we suggest you get acquainted with some of the criteria that teachers rely upon when checking the essay.
1. The degree of understanding of the theoretical material clarity of the concepts under consideration, their completeness; availability of relevant examples; all concepts must be strictly on the topic; moderate emotionality (do not turn the essay into diary entries)
2. The analytical part of the essay is carried out a competent analysis of the problem; analysis techniques are varied (comparison, synthesis, etc.) and used correctly; there is another, alternative point of view on the problem; there is a personal attitude to the problem.
3. The logic of judgments can be traced to the logical connection between theses; evidence clearly arises from judgment; the presentation is clear and concise; All essays should be in the same style. Your work must be unique. Try to find such a detail in the problem that no one noticed. Then this work will definitely interest the teacher, and he will be much more loyal in evaluating your essay. After you have written the work, do a little exercise. Count how many words each paragraph contains. And sign them with the letters “K” (short), “C” (medium), “D” (long). “K” – up to 20 words; “C” – from 20 to 40 words; “D” – more than 40 words. The most advantageous variant would be approximately the following sequence: С C С D С K. With such a construction of the presentation, the narration becomes the most dynamic. A wrong essay will look, for example, in the following way: K K C C D D D.