APA Style in research paper

APA Style in research paper

APA Style in research paper

The APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association) and is used in the writing of works on psychology, as well as other social sciences.

This format also provides for the use of annotations designed to summarize the key details contained in the document, without further details.

To annotate a meta-analysis or literature review

The abstract should contain not less than 150 and not more than 250 words. It should be written in one paragraph. Unlike the other paragraphs in the article (five spaces from the left edge), the first line of the abstract does not require a paragraph indent. Line spacing in annotations (as well as throughout the document) should be double, font – Times New Roman, 12 pt. Fields – 1 “(2.5 cm) on all sides.

The title is located in the upper left corner of each page, the page number is in the upper right corner of each page. Please note that the title is written in capital letters and should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation marks, letters and spaces.

The title of the abstract is placed in the center at the top of the page; there are no interline spaces between the title and the text. Avoid the title in bold, italics, underline, or quotes, or mislabeled annotations – the name of the research work.

When writing annotations note

that APA recommends using two spaces after the sentences that end with a period; however, sentences ending in other punctuation may be followed by a single space. In addition, the APA recommends using verb forms in the actual voice and the past tense in the annotation, but the present tense can be used to describe the conclusions and possible consequences. Abbreviations or abbreviations should be indicated in the abstract.


The annotation must meet the following conditions:

Summarize the most important points of your article;

Clearly reflect the purpose and content of your article;

Be consistent so that it is easy to read;

Stay objective in your point of view.

How to make a title page of scientific research?

On this page we will look at how to properly form the title page of the research work (project), we will give a sample, norms, and recommendations for the design of the title page of the project.

The title page of the research paper or project is drawn up on an A4 paper sheet and is the first page of the student’s project work.

left margin – 20 mm

right – 10 mm

top and bottom – 15 mm each

The full name of the educational institution is written in the upper field of the title page of the research work (font size is 16 pt.).

In the middle of the sheet is written without quotes “Research work” (font – 24 pt.)

The next line – in capital letters indicate the name of the research work without the word “theme”, without quotes and without a dot at the end (28 pt. Font).

The title, if necessary, may contain a subtitle for a more specific presentation of the theme of the project, but it should be very short and not become the second title of the work.

In the lower right corner of the title page, information about the author of the research work is given (last name, first name, class), below – information about the research leader (write “Manager” and indicate his surname, initials, and position.

If there are several project managers, all are comma-separated. If a consultant helped you in your work, then his initials and surname are placed below the head with the indication “Consultant”.

We give a sample of the title page of the student’s research work:

So, the design of the title page of the research work, as well as the project is almost standard:

full name of the institution

title of research

student last name, class

surname, initials, the position of project manager

city ​​or town

year of work

Some of the design details depend on the recommendations of the Ministry of Education and Science of your country and region.

Proper design of all research work will help in the future correctly execute term papers and dissertations.

Registration of the title page of the research work is the first step.

What is the difference between thesis and dissertation?

The thesis (from the Latin. – research, reasoning) is a special, strictly defined form of a scientific work that has a scientific qualification character, prepared for public defense and a degree.

In the Big Encyclopedic Dictionary, the following definition is given: “The thesis is a research paper prepared for public defense for a degree”

Officially, the following requirements are made for the dissertation:

1) scientific research is conducted personally by the author;

2) the thesis contains a set of new scientific results and regulations;

3) the dissertation has an internal unity;

4) the dissertation indicates the personal contribution of the applicant to the development of a scientific problem;

First of all, I want to warn you: if you think that thesis is a brief retelling of the points of some more global text, then you are right. However, those who think that this is an independent article are also right, only in miniature.

The word “thesis” is used in several meanings. Most often we hear about it applicable to scientific activities.

In the scientific world, theses of the reports presented at the conference are often published in the newsletter and their value to the representatives of science is quite high: such a publication is counted for a higher scientific title.

However, this is not the only area that uses theses. If we talk about theses as an Internet product, they are intended to briefly describe the main theme of the site, blog, or its section. In addition, in the content business, very often customers do not offer a plan, but short statements that a copywriter should disclose. So you see – under this short word can hide a lot of interesting things.

To theses, as well as to any other professionally written text, there are uniform requirements. In spite of the fact that some of the points have them in connection with the essay, one should not forget: first of all, this is not a literary, but a scientific work with all the consequences.

The ability to correctly write theses, ideally, we should get back in school. However, not everyone at this age is able to understand that it is necessary not for the teacher and mom and dad, but above all for ourselves. Therefore, we recall:

The title should correspond to the main topic. I have a separate article about the headlines. It is better to choose the name after writing the main part – then it will be more accurate.

The topic is chosen clear and rather narrow: the concise format of the theses does not allow to get too far from the essence.

Essay score: how to define

If you are not writing an essay on your own, but on the instructions of a teacher, he will definitely evaluate it. Of course, I want to get the highest score, and for this, you need to know what criteria it will check. All this is well known to our authors, who write such works day after day. We give quality guarantees and vouch for them, as we select and accredit them personally. In addition, the customers themselves leave feedback on the work of the authors that make up the rating. So you can, based on it, choose a personnel specialist. In any case, we suggest you get acquainted with some of the criteria that teachers rely upon when checking the essay.

1. The degree of understanding of the theoretical material clarity of the concepts under consideration, their completeness; availability of relevant examples; all concepts must be strictly on the topic; moderate emotionality (do not turn the essay into diary entries)

2. The analytical part of the essay is carried out a competent analysis of the problem; analysis techniques are varied (comparison, synthesis, etc.) and used correctly; there is another, alternative point of view on the problem; there is a personal attitude to the problem.

3. The logic of judgments can be traced to the logical connection between theses; evidence clearly arises from judgment; the presentation is clear and concise; All essays should be in the same style. Your work must be unique. Try to find such a detail in the problem that no one noticed. Then this work will definitely interest the teacher, and he will be much more loyal in evaluating your essay. After you have written the work, do a little exercise. Count how many words each paragraph contains. And sign them with the letters “K” (short), “C” (medium), “D” (long). “K” – up to 20 words; “C” – from 20 to 40 words; “D” – more than 40 words. The most advantageous variant would be approximately the following sequence: С C С D С K. With such a construction of the presentation, the narration becomes the most dynamic. A wrong essay will look, for example, in the following way: K K C C D D D.

Signs of the essay

Signs of the essay

Signs of the essay

1. Small volume.

Of course, there are no hard boundaries. The volume of the essay is from three to seven pages of computer text. For example, at the Harvard Business School, essays are often written on just two pages. In Russian universities, an essay of up to ten pages is allowed, however, in typewritten text.

2. The specific topic and its subjective interpretation are emphasized.

The topic of the essay is always specific. An essay may not contain many topics or ideas (thoughts). It reflects only one option, one thought. And develops it. This is the answer to one question.

3. Free composition is an important feature of the essay.

The researchers note that the essay is by its nature designed so that it does not tolerate any formal framework. It is often built contrary to the laws of logic, subject to arbitrary associations, and is guided by the principle “It’s the other way round.”

4. Ease of narration.

It is important for the author of an essay to establish a confidential style of communication with the reader; to be understood, he avoids intentionally complicated, obscure, overly strict constructions. Researchers note that a good essay can only be written by someone who is fluent in the topic, sees it from different angles and is ready to present the reader with an incomplete, but a multidimensional view of the phenomenon that has become the starting point of his thoughts.

5. The tendency to paradoxes.

An essay is intended to surprise the reader (listener) – this, according to many researchers, is its mandatory quality. The starting point for reflection embodied in an essay is often an aphoristic, vivid statement or a paradoxical definition, which literally confronts at first glance indisputable, but mutually exclusive, statements, characteristics, and theses.

When writing an essay, it is important to define its topic, determine the desired scope and objectives of each paragraph.

Start with the main idea or a bright phrase. The task is to immediately capture the attention of the reader (listener). A comparative allegory is often used here when an unexpected fact or event is associated with the main topic of the essay.

Essay writing rules

From the formal rules of writing an essay, you can name only one thing – the presence of a title.

The internal structure of the essay can be arbitrary. Since this is a small form of written work, a mandatory repetition of conclusions at the end is not required; they can be included in the main text or in the heading.

The argument may precede the formulation of the problem. The formulation of the problem may coincide with the final conclusion.

Requirements for the dissertation: how long it should be

In the dissertation, which has an applied character, the information on the practical use of the scientific results obtained by the author of the thesis should be cited, and in the thesis, which has a theoretical character, recommendations on the use of scientific findings should be given.

The solutions proposed by the author of the thesis should be reasoned and evaluated in comparison with other known solutions.

The number of publications that set out the main scientific results of the thesis in peer-reviewed publications should be:

for the master’s thesis – at least 2;

for a doctoral dissertation – at least 10.

The thesis must contain reliable information about the works published by the applicant for a scientific degree.

Patents for inventions, patents (certificates) for a utility model, patents for industrial design, patents for selection achievements, certificates for a program for electronic computers, a database, topology are equated to publications in which the main scientific results of the dissertation are presented. integrated circuits registered in the prescribed manner.

In the dissertation, the applicant of a scientific degree is obliged to refer to the author and (or) the source of borrowing materials or individual results.

When using in the dissertation the results of scientific work performed by the applicant of a scientific degree personally and (or) in collaboration, the applicant of a scientific degree is obliged to note this circumstance in the dissertation.

If the requirements are not met:

to the publication of the main results of the thesis,

the presence in the text of reliable information about published works,

to the presence in the text of links to borrowed and co-sponsored results

the dissertation is not taken to the defense.

If the requirements are not met:

the presence in the text of reliable information about published works;

to the presence in the text of links to borrowed and co-sponsored results

the dissertation is not allowed to re-defense.

Commercial paper

Commercial paper

Commercial paper

A commercial paper is a debt security, a written commitment of a strictly defined form. The person who issued the bill is called the maker. Owning a bill – holder. Bills are simple and transferable.

Under a promissory note, the drawer will pay the bill holder without any conditions.

Bill of exchange (commercial paper) is a debt paper in which the drawer issues a written order to the payer to pay the named amount unconditionally. The procedure for making an obligation to pay a bill of exchange by the payer is called acceptance of the bill.

When using a promissory note, two parties are involved: the one who owes and the one to whom they owe. A bill of exchange requires the participation of already three – the drawer, the payer and the one to whom they pay.

The initial financial task of the bill is to transfer commodity-money relations into the form of an unconditional promise to pay. At the same time, the origin of debt loses legal significance, and the fact of debt is a priori considered as proven.

Rights under a bill are transferred not by way of the session, as for other securities, but by endorsement, that is, through a transfer inscription. Any person or organization who has put his signature on the bill becomes co-respondents for the debt with the right of regressive demand for all others who have signed. In other words, any person who has put an endorsement, you can bring to pay. Having paid the bill, the person acquires the right to demand payment from other persons who have set an endorsement, or directly from the payer. The transfer inscription is placed on the back of the bill.

Only when the bill is issued with payment upon presentation or at a certain time from the presentation, can percentages be indicated in it. In other cases, interest is not allowed – they will be considered unwritten. Reception of the income under the bill is possible, as a rule, in the form of a discount.

The law requires the bill to be presented on time: either on the day when the bill is due or within two days from this date. In case of refusal in payment on the bill, there is a special procedure – a protest on the bill. The protest on the bill is carried out at the notary, and further consideration in court is not required. The court immediately issues a writ of recovery. That is, enforcement proceedings against the debtor begin.

Research work is: answers to troubling questions

Writing a research paper is an important step in learning. Diploma, term paper, thesis – they sum up a kind of result in the learning process. Therefore, it is quite a difficult thing.

Many students wonder how to write a research paper so that subsequent protection will be successful. This article is designed to answer most of the questions associated with writing research, give a number of useful tips and recommendations that will help you accomplish the task as accurately as possible.

To begin with, we will answer the question of what research work is, why it is needed, and who does it.

Research work (R & D) is an activity aimed at collecting, analyzing, interpreting and systematizing certain information.

But the most important characteristic of research – it implies a scientific search.

In other words, within the framework of scientific work one or another problem is investigated that is relevant for a specific field of scientific knowledge.

Research involves the use of specialized scientific techniques, appeal to a wide range of scientific literature. It is focused on obtaining a result that is of research value.

This may be a term paper or a thesis, a monograph, a dissertation or a scientific article. In addition to the scientific value of research, it illustrates the level of mastering the curriculum of students, the degree of their knowledge of the scientific apparatus.

Writing and protection of a certain level of research and development is a mandatory prerequisite for a researcher to receive a scientific degree or a degree. Scientific works are written by students, undergraduates, graduate students, associate professors, doctors of science.

Perhaps the most painful question is how to choose a topic for the upcoming work.

There are two options: take a topic from the list provided by the department, and come up with it yourself.

Both options have their tangible pros and cons.

How to write a literature review for a dissertation?

How to write a literature review for a dissertation?

How to write a literature review for a dissertation?

How to write a review of literature for a thesis, a scientific article or in another report on research activities is explained when working on a diploma in the course of higher education. However, due to the rigor of the requirements for postgraduate research, scientists have many questions concerning the principles of writing and processing the results achieved in the course of research.

Methodical instructions of universities and recommendations of the Higher Attestation Commission help to find answers to them. Such documents are generalized, and therefore cannot always solve the specific problem of the scientist. Study several ready-made literature reviews in order not only to get into the scheme of working with literature or to learn how to draw up links and quotes correctly but also to choose the most convenient principle for presenting theoretical data. In his Ph.D. thesis, Chapter 1 contains an overview of the topic of the thesis. Download defended theses in your specialty and study literature reviews.

How to make a structured dissertation literature review?

There are two basic concepts of writing a literary review. In the chronological approach, the materials are set out in the context of historical development: the turning points are described in the order in which they occurred, the most important hypotheses and their authors are indicated, conflicting trends are characterized and the author’s contribution to the overall picture is revealed. The logical principle involves writing subsections devoted to the description of the object of study, the characteristic of its relationship with related fields of science and practice, the importance for the national economy or society.

A good review of scientific literature is not abstract, but analytical. This means that the author, in his preparation, must link the information found in publications with the tasks of his own research. Moreover, the narration should identify problem areas in the array of available scientific information on the topic of work. These may be conflicting judgments or underdeveloped aspects. The results of such an analytical assessment are well used to justify the need to consider the chosen topic.

Logically, a review of literary sources in scientific work creates the prerequisites for accurately identifying in research a goal and setting goals for achieving it. In the classical approach to the design of the thesis, these items are placed in the introduction block, which also includes the justification of relevance, a brief description of the current situation, and lists the provisions for protection. In good work, all components of the introductory part are consistent with each other, and the formulation of goals and objectives is confirmed by the results of an analytical literature report.

Pros and cons of self-writing Ph.D. dissertation.

Master’s and Ph.D.’s scientific works contain the author’s existing knowledge and experience in this field, which was obtained during two years of work on the topic, its disclosure, and research.

But the term of 2 years is established only in theory. In everyday life, due to the constant lack of time, all the tasks for such work become a serious problem – the search and selection of the necessary information, literary sources, an algorithm for constructing work, design and writing itself.

When confronted with such problems, the best way out is to turn to reliable professionals who guarantee that their work will be of excellent quality.

Before each applicant, sooner or later, there is a choice – to buy the writing of a dissertation or pay for the finished work. If you do decide to order work, you need to understand that it takes some time to write it.

The quality, literacy, and originality of the candidate’s or master’s work depend on the allotted time. It is recommended to think about ordering a few months before delivery. Then there will be time for its study and preparation for high-quality and successful protection.

For doctors of science to write a thesis to order is not difficult and does not take a lot of time, but still, if you want to get a job of excellent quality, it is better not to delay asking for dissertation help service. Experts are always ready to advise the client on writing a scientific work or write a research work of any complexity inside and out.

If you order a thesis from specialists, upon receipt of the work all the necessary documents drawn up in accordance with all the requirements of GOST will be attached to the work.

When writing the work themselves, many people forget that in addition to the main text of the thesis, it is necessary to start preparing the accompanying documents in advance. First of all, is the abstract and review of the master’s thesis.

Master’s or Ph.D. thesis to order – the ideal way out of a difficult situation

Timing. This parameter defines in many ways the person who will be engaged in your work – a senior student who is simultaneously working on his own dissertation, a senior teacher or a teacher of a higher educational institution.

Based on these conditions, you will be given the most suitable option, and the price for research work will be determined by what you choose for yourself, you just need to choose the dissertation help service. Pay special attention: the most democratic option is to write a work for gifted students. But it does not imply a change in your work. The possibility of adjusting the work will be available only after making an additional payment.

How to cite a web site in an essay?

How to cite a web site in an essay?

How to cite a web site in an essay?

The information posted on a page on the Internet is an electronic remote access resource. You can cite it in an essay by following the next rules. Description of electronic resources of local and remote access is regulated by GOST 7.82 – 2001 “Bibliographic record. Bibliographic description of electronic resources. Here are excerpts from the document.

Description of the electronic resource

The main title of the electronic resource and is reproduced in the form in which it is given in the source of information, for example, The Great Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius

General material designation: [Electronic resource]

A parallel title is the equivalent of the main title in a different language, for example, The Imperial Palace and Park Ensembles of St. Petersburg [Electronic resource] = The Imperial Palace of St. Petersburg. Petersburg

Title information – information that reveals and explains the main title. They are preceded by a colon, for example: condition, problems, prospects.

Details of responsibility may consist of the names of persons and names of organizations with accompanying words or short text specifying their role in creating an electronic resource, or without such words and text, for example: / author. course, A. Sigalov or / Ros. state humanitarian un-t

Information about the publication – information about changes and (or) features of this publication in relation to the previous edition of the same document, for example, Ed. 3rd, rev. and add.

The designation of the type of resource, for example, Electron. Journal, Electron. text is given. etc.

The volume of the resource is written in brackets for example: (33 files)

Place of publication, name of the publisher, date of publication, for example, Moscow: Intersoft, 1999. If there is no information about the place of publication or date in the document, but they are known, they are given in square brackets, for example: – [Novosibirsk]. If the alleged place of publication is given, it is indicated in square brackets with a question mark, for example: – [Kursk?]. If the date cannot be set, then it is given in square brackets approximately, for example: [199-?]

Link examples

Electronic catalog of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology [Electronic resource]: the database contains information on all types of literature supplied to the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology. – Electron. Dan. (5 files, 178 thousand records). – M., [199-?]. – Access mode: http://www.gpntb.ru/win/search/help/el-cat.html. – Title from the screen.

Russian spelling dictionary of Russian Academy of Sciences [Electronic resource] / Ed. V. V. Lopatina – Electron. Dan. – M.: Reference and information Internet portal GRAMOTA.RU, 2005. – Access mode: http://www.slovari.gramota.ru, free. – Title from the screen.

How to find a good essay writer?

One of the frequent problems that almost all owners of fast-growing projects created for earnings face are the search for the author of the texts for the project, in other words, a good copywriter. Indeed, the success of monetization of the site depends on the qualifications of the latter. And then, even if there is already a copywriter, it is impossible to say for sure how long and successful this cooperation will be.

In addition, to force majeure circumstances, in which every performer can suddenly, there are many reasons for refusing to continue to cooperate – an increase in the contractor’s own pay rates, a lack of mutual understanding on key points, etc.

Authors also tend to “get tired.” Many essay writers have a tendency to “write up”. When work becomes a routine, writing articles is put on stream, creative impulses are extinguished, and the struggle for uniqueness turns into such production costs as tongue-tied language, you can understand the situation. But you shouldn’t let it go. It will not get any better. As soon as you notice that the copywriter begins to work carelessly, it’s time to look for a worthy replacement for him. Moreover, the probability of finding a copywriter is better than before very, very high, whenever you decide to take this step.

There is an opinion that those who really know how to write do not sit on the exchanges in anticipation of orders, but work directly with customers. Perhaps this statement is true for expensive copywriters who have made their own name a recognizable brand, having a website and a long line of clients.

Where to find a good essay writer?

When you need to find a copywriter on the site to work on writing articles, first of all, it makes sense to look for an artist after all through a specialized exchange. If only because the work with content on the main exchanges is brought to a very decent level. In addition to the ability to set the desired price for 1000 characters (the cost of copywriting), there is almost always a choice from a variety of performers who responded to the task created.

The system of evaluations of performers (rating) available on many exchanges, work statistics and portfolio, although they do not guarantee a quick solution of the issue, still, greatly help in selecting the author-copywriter. Ignore the copyright portfolio, its test work, links to which can often be found on the stock exchanges, as well as reviews of other customers, should not be under any circumstances.